Fol. 40v

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David's Command to Ziba; David's Great Charity; Diplomacy; Shameful Treatment

Old Testament miniatures with Latin, Persian, and Judeo-Persian inscriptions

France, Paris
390 x 300 mm

Purchased by J. P. Morgan, Jr., 1916

MS M.638 (fol. 40v)
Item description: 

The Crusader Bible, also known as the Morgan Picture Bible, the Maciejowski Bible, and the Shah ‘Abbas Bible, is not only one of the greatest medieval manuscripts in the Morgan, it also ranks as one of the incomparable achievements of French Gothic illumination.

The miniatures represent one of the greatest visualizations of Old Testament events ever made. Some of the stories and their heroes are well known, but there are also accounts of less familiar Israelites who fought for the Promised Land—tales that resonate to this day. There are incredibly violent battle scenes in which the implements of war are so accurately depicted they could be replicated. And there are scenes of everyday life, love, hate, and envy, as well as adultery, rape, and murder—all set in thirteenth-century France.

Page description: 

David's Command to Ziba
David learns from Ziba, a former servant of Saul, that a member of Saul's house still lives. He is the crippled Mephibosheth, Jonathan's son. David orders Ziba to fetch him. (2 Samuel 9:2–5)

David's Great Charity
Ziba presents Mephibosheth, Jonathan's son, to the king. David takes his hand and swears to Mephibosheth that he will always eat at the king's table. Moreover, the king once more sets Ziba and his house under Mephibosheth, to insure that Jonathan's progeny will thrive. (2 Samuel 9:6–7)

The king of Ammon has died, and his son has succeeded him. David, who was once allied with the king, sends messengers to show his good will toward the new ruler. (2 Samuel 10:1–2)

Shameful Treatment
David's envoys arrive in Ammon to offer his friendship to Hanun, the new king. Hanun's servants, suspicious of David's intentions, persuade the king that David has sent his men to spy. Hanun thus shamefully orders that half of each man's beard be cut off and their clothes cut to reveal their nakedness. (2 Samuel 10:3–4)


Folio 40v (Latin)

Upper left: How, sent to David, Joram, the son of Toi, the king of Hamath salutes him and congratulates him on his great victories. (2 Samuel 8: 9–10)

Upper right: How David devised that it be diligently inquired if anyone of the house of Saul had survived. Once it was found that one of the sons of Jonathan, Saul’s son, Mephibosheth by name was still alive, and that both his feet were lame, David has him brought to him, talks to him mercifully and kindly and reinstates him over all of his grandfather’s properties. He also orders him to eat at his table perpetually. (2 Samuel 9)

Lower left: How, upon hearing about the death of Nahash, the king of the children of Ammon, David sends messengers to his son, Hanun by name, who had succeeded him, consoling him for his father’s death. (2 Samuel 10:1–2)

Lower right: How Hanun, who, following his men’s suggestion, suspected that David’s messengers were sent not to console him but to spy, shaved off one half of their beards and cut away their clothes up to their buttocks and thus sent them back disgracefully. (2 Samuel 10: 3–4)

Folio 40v (Persian)

Persian foliation: 4

Upper left margin: One of the princes came to His Excellence David and congratulated him on the conquests and was joyous and received honor.

Upper right margin: David said that, "This boy is lame and is said to be the grandson of Saul. If what they say is true, he shall dine at my table."

Lower left margin: David sent an ambassador to a king.

Lower right, above and below Latin inscription: That king assumed that the ambassador was a spy and cut off his skirt to the waist, cut his beard, and sent him off.

Folio 40v (Judeo-Persian)

Upper half, middle: These pages [belong] to the Tale of David.

Lower right, beneath Latin, left: David sends an ambassador.


Content consultant: Richard Leson

Persian translated by Sussan Babaie

Judeo-Persian translated by Vera Basch Moreen

Latin translation by Eran Lupu

After the commentary volume accompanying the Fine Art Facsimile edition by Faksimile Verlag Luzern /