Fol. 11v

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An Execution; Joshua's Final Commands; Joshua's Passing

Old Testament miniatures with Latin, Persian, and Judeo-Persian inscriptions

France, Paris
390 x 300 mm

Purchased by J. P. Morgan, Jr., 1916

MS M.638 (fol. 11v)
Item description: 

The Crusader Bible, also known as the Morgan Picture Bible, the Maciejowski Bible, and the Shah ‘Abbas Bible, is not only one of the greatest medieval manuscripts in the Morgan, it also ranks as one of the incomparable achievements of French Gothic illumination.

The miniatures represent one of the greatest visualizations of Old Testament events ever made. Some of the stories and their heroes are well known, but there are also accounts of less familiar Israelites who fought for the Promised Land—tales that resonate to this day. There are incredibly violent battle scenes in which the implements of war are so accurately depicted they could be replicated. And there are scenes of everyday life, love, hate, and envy, as well as adultery, rape, and murder—all set in thirteenth-century France.

Page description: 

An Execution
After their humiliation, the five Amorite kings are hanged for a full day. Come evening, Joshua orders a soldier to take the bodies down. (Joshua 10:26–27)

Joshua's Final Commands
Years later, before his own death, an elderly Joshua exhorts the leaders of Israel to remember the many blessings of the Lord and to obey the law of Moses. (Joshua 23:1–14)

Joshua's Passing
Beside Joshua's deathbed, the people grieve and mourn the passing of their great leader. (Joshua 24:29–31)


Folio 11v (Latin)

Upper half: How Joshua had the five kings who had been defeated in battle hanged on trees. (Joshua 10: 26)

Lower left: How Joshua, old, advanced in years and near death, gives many orders to the assembled children of Israel, encouraging them to be observant of the laws. (Joshua 23: 1–24 – 24)

Lower right: How, the affairs of the children of Israel now settled, Joshua dies. (Joshua 24: 29)

Folio 11v (Persian)

Persian foliation: 33

Upper left margin: And after that Joshua ordered those five kings to be hanged.

Lower left: When Joshua’s death neared, he summoned his people and gave his last testament.

Lower right: Here, Joshua breathed his last breath and died.

Folio 11v (Judeo-Persian)

Upper left margin, furthest left: The hanging of the five kings.

Lower left margin: At the time of Joshua’s death, he seeks out the Children of Israel and bequeaths his will.

Lower right, beneath Latin: Joshua’s departure from the world.


Content consultant: Richard Leson

Persian translated by Sussan Babaie

Judeo-Persian translated by Vera Basch Moreen

Latin translation by Eran Lupu

After the commentary volume accompanying the Fine Art Facsimile edition by Faksimile Verlag Luzern /