Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres

Download image: 
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
Frau Johann Gotthard Reinhold and Her Two Daughters, Susette and Marie
12 1/4 x 9 1/4 inches (311 x 235 mm)
Thaw Collection.

Cut in such a way as to result in an irregular edge made up on all sides with Japanese paper.
In 1815 Rome saw the collapse of the Napoleonic regime and the rise of the French government installed by the Bourbon Restoration. For artists active in the capital, there was a major shift in sources for commissions and opportunities for employment. For Ingres, it meant the disappearance of Murat family patronage and the need to cultivate a new circle of supporters. Although the artist was not particularly enthusiastic at this stage in his career about returning to producing portrait drawings, his graphite studies of officials, diplomats, and tourists from this period are among his principal graphic achievements. This elegant and skillfully arranged group portrait of a foreign diplomat's family is a testament to the artist's immense skill as a portraitist and his success during this interim period. In a few years, he would return to large-scale history painting.
The sitters are the wife and daughters of Johann Gottfried Reinhold (1771-1838), who, after the demise of Napoleonic rule, was appointed the Dutch ambassador to Rome and Florence. He was stationed in Rome between 1814 and 1827. Ultimately, Reinhold commissioned at least three portraits from Ingres: this group portrait and individual ones of his sister, Fraulein Susanne Reinhold (1816, Frankfurt, Naef 185), and his wife's sister, Fraulein Louise Ritter (1817, Naef 200). Reinhold's affinity for the arts was well known, and in 1838, an often cited, unpublished obituary described him as “more scholar than soldier, more man of the world than scholar, but in truth more poet than man of the world and scholar.”
Born in Germany, Reinhold was brought up in the Netherlands and served as a Dutch diplomat, first in Hamburg, where he met and married Sophie Amalie Dorothea Whilhelmine (called Minna) Ritter. Their daughter Susette (on her mother's left in the sheet) was born in Hamburg in 1808, and a second daughter, Marie (on her mother's right), was born in Berlin in 1810. Susette died in Rome in 1821; Marie, who married a Hamburg merchant, inherited this sheet. When Marie and her husband were visited in 1850 by Karl Auguste Varnhagen von Ense, he noted seeing “Portraits of Reinhold, the family, drawn by Ingres in Rome,” raising the possibility that a portrait of Johann Reinhold may have been made as well.
Ingres spent more time on this rare, complex group portrait drawing than usual. The artist typically visited the subject in the morning, studied their mannerisms during lunch, and then executed the portrait in the afternoon. He worked on specially prepared tablets with layers of paper wrapped around a cardboard center and finished with finely surfaced white English paper. The cushioning gave the artist a taut and resilient surface on which he could wield his pencil to depict the influx of Restoration politicians and their families.


Signed and dated at lower right, Ingres Del. Rome 1815.
Watermark: none

Johann Gotthard Reinhold (1771-1838), Hamburg, and his wife, Sophie Amalie Dorothea Wilhelmine “Minna” Ritter Reinhold (1782-1846), Hamburg, until 1846; their daughter, Marie-Auguste-Frederike Ritter Reinhold, later Mrs. Louis Köster (1810-1873), Hamburg, until 1873; probably her husband, Louis Köster (Ludwig Christopher Köster; d. 1880?), Hamburg, until 1880; Martin Birnbaum (1878-1970), New York; from whom purchased in 1931 by Mrs. Abby Aldrich Rockefeller II (1974-1948), New York (drawing removed from tablet during this time); her widower, John D. Rockefeller II (1874-1960), New York, until 1960; by descent to Mr. and Mrs. David Rockefeller (1915-2017), New York; from whom acquired by Eugene V. (1927-2018) and Clare E. (1924-2017) Thaw, New York and Santa Fe.
Associated names: 

Reinhold, Johann Gotthard, former owner.
Köster, Louis, Frau, former owner.
Köster, Louis, former owner.
Birnbaum, Martin, former owner.
Rockefeller, Abby Aldrich, former owner.
Rockefeller, John D. (John Davison), 1874-1960, former owner.
Rockefeller, David, 1915-2017 former owner.
Thaw, Eugene Victor, former owner.
Thaw, Clare, former owner.


The Morgan Library & Museum, New York, NY, "Drawn to Greatness: Master Drawings from the Thaw Collection", 2017. Exh. cat., no. 202, repr.
The Thaw Collection : Master Drawings and Oil Sketches : Acquisitions since 1994. New York : Pierpont Morgan Library, 2002, no. 34.
100 Master drawings from the Morgan Library & Museum. München : Hirmer, 2008, no. 81, repr. [Cara Dufour Denison and Jennifer Tonkovich]
Select Bibliography: Naef 1977-80, vol. 1, ch. 54, pp. 491-503, fig. 1; vol. 4, no. 149, repr.; London and Elsewhere 1999, no. 56, repr.; New York 2002-3, no. 34, repr.