The historian Jean Bénard dedicated this account of Anglo-French diplomatic relations to Nicolas de Villeroy, whose arms are painted beneath the dedicatory epistle. Another page displays the patron’s motto, Per ardua surgo (Through difficulties I arise), and his emblem, a tree growing on a mountaintop with sufficient strength to withstand the summer heat and winter storms. Other pages are illuminated with floral borders. Bénard recites French grievances against England, such as its capture of the port city of Calais and its alliances with other countries too close for comfort. As secretary of state, Villeroy helped to conduct his country’s foreign affairs and would have valued this historical overview.