Samuel's Prophecy Fulfilled; All is Lost; Eli's Death; Dagon Dismembered
Old Testament miniatures with Latin, Persian, and Judeo-Persian inscriptions
390 x 300 mm
Purchased by J. P. Morgan, Jr., 1916
MS M.638 (fol. 21r)
The Crusader Bible, also known as the Morgan Picture Bible, the Maciejowski Bible, and the Shah ‘Abbas Bible, is not only one of greatest medieval manuscripts in the Morgan, it also ranks as one of the incomparable achievements of French Gothic illumination.
The miniatures represent one of the greatest visualizations of Old Testament events ever made. Some of the stories and their heroes are well known, but there are also accounts of other Israelites who fought for the Promised Land—stories that resonate to this day. There are incredibly violent battle scenes where the implements of war are so accurately depicted they could be replicated. And there are scenes not only of murder, everyday life, and love, but also of hate, envy, adultery, and rape—all set in the scenery and customs of thirteenth-century France.
Samuel's Prophecy Fulfilled
Samuel's prophecy of the doom of the house of Eli is fulfilled with terrible consequences—thirty thousand men are killed. The Israelites are routed and massacred by the Philistines. The wicked sons of Eli lie slain by arrow and sword beneath the hooves of retreating horses. (1 Kings 4:5–11)
All is Lost
The Ark of the Covenant is captured and borne away by victorious Philistines. (1 Kings 4:11)
A Benjamite messenger arrives in Shiloh with news of the Israelites'defeat. When Eli learns of his sons' deaths and the loss of the Ark of the Covenant, he is overwhelmed by shock and grief. He swoons backwards in his chair, breaks his neck, and dies. The people of Shiloh emerge from the city gate, expressing great dismay and grief. (1 Kings 4:12–18)
The Ark of the Covenant will bring no peace to the pagan Philistines. In their city of Ashdod, they set the Ark upon the altar of their god Dagon, and his image breaks in half. (1 Kings 5:2–5)
Folio 21r (Latin)
Upper left: How the sons of Israel were defeated in a great battle and thirty thousand of them fell and, moreover, the sons of Eli, the priests of the temple, and the ark of God was captured. (I Samuel 4: 6–11)
Upper right: How the victorious Philistines carry the ark of God to their homeland to place it in the temple of their god. (I Samuel 5: 1–2)
Lower left: How, when the aged Eli was sitting on a seat and all was announced: the disturbing outcome of the battle, the slaughter of the people, the death of his sons, and the loss of the ark of God, as the ark of God was mentioned, he at once fell off his seat and died. (I Samuel 4: 12–18)
Lower right: How at once, when the Philistines had set the ark of God in the temple of their god who was called Dagon, Dagon himself was found in the next morning lying prostrate on the ground. When they had raised him up and set him back in the same place, again, in the next morning, he was found truncated, his head and hands lying on the ground. (I Samuel 5: 2–4)
Folio 21r (Persian)
Upper left margin: And the enemies slew the sons and brethren of the priest and took away the Ark.
Lower left margin: The priest became weak and blind and while he was sitting on a chair, he received the news of the slaying of his sons. He fell backwards from the chair and his head hit the ground and he died.
Lower right margin: And the company of the idolaters took the Ark of God to the temple of idols and laid it before the idol. That night, by the command of God, the head, hands and feet of the idol were cut off and in the morning they found the head and the body on the threshold of that temple.
Folio 21r (Judeo-Persian)
Upper left margin, closest: The sons of Eli together with thirty thousand from among the Children of Israel were killed; the Philistines also carried off the Ark.
Lower left, above Latin: Eli, upon being told about the killing of his sons and the capture of the Ark, fell backwards and died.
Lower right margin, furthest right: The Philistines carry the Ark into the idolatrous temple of Dagon, place it next to Dagon; [the idol] Dagon falls down and breaks.
Content consultant: Richard Leson
Persian translated by Sussan Babaie
Judeo-Persian translated by Vera Basch Moreen
Latin translation by Eran Lupu
After the commentary volume accompanying the Fine Art Facsimile edition by Faksimile Verlag Luzern / www.faksimile.ch