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Lake, Land, and Cloud

James Charles Armytage (d. 1897) after John Ruskin (1819–1900)
Lake, Land, and Cloud. Steel-engraving. Frontispiece in vol. 3 of Ruskin's Modern Painters: Their Superiority in the Art of Landscape Painting to All the Ancient Masters Proved by Examples of the True, the Beautiful, and the Intellectual, from the Works of Modern Artists, Especially from those of J. M.W. Turner. London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1843–60. 5 vols. Bequest of Gordon N. Ray, 1987; PML 133379
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Modern Painters began as a counterattack on critics of the landscape paintings of J. M. W. Turner but grew into a magisterial treatise on art theory and aesthetics, containing stinging social commentary as well as salient observations on literature, philosophy, and religion. Ruskin's ideas greatly influenced the work of Victorian garden designers, such as William Robinson and Gertrude Jekyll in England and Andrew Jackson Downing in America. The engraved frontispiece reproduces a Ruskin drawing, an ideal landscape in the Turnerian style.

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The programs of The Morgan Library & Museum are made possible with public funds from the New York City Department of Cultural Affairs in partnership with the City Council, and by the New York State Council on the Arts with the support of Governor Andrew Cuomo and the New York State Legislature.

Background images: Photography by Todd Eberle unless otherwise noted. © 2006 Todd Eberle.