Fol. 9r

Divine Vengeance; A Joyful Celebration; Bitter Waters

Old Testament miniatures with Latin, Persian, and Judeo-Persian inscriptions

France, Paris
390 x 300 mm

Purchased by J. P. Morgan, Jr., 1916

MS M.638 (fol. 9r)
Item description: 

Scholars believe that the Picture Bible was commissioned by Louis IX of France, the Capetian monarch who built the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris to house the crown of thorns before leaving for the first of his two crusades in 1248. The Bible later passed to the cardinal of Cracow, who then offered it as a diplomatic gift to the great Persian Muslim shah 'Abbas in the early seventeenth century. The manuscript eventually fell into the hands of Jewish owners, probably during the eighteenth century. These various owners left Latin, Persian, and Judeo-Persian inscriptions around the images. With these inscriptions, the keepers of the manuscript used their languages to assert their ownership of the book, appropriating its narrative contents and assimilating it into their own cultures.

The Latin captions are the earliest. They can be labeled as "early fourteenth-century," and were possibly made by a scribe trained in Bologna. The Persian captions come next. They were added in 1608 or shortly after, when the manuscript was presented to Shah Abbas in Isfahan. The Judeo-Persians are last, and according to the translator, they were probably made in 1722 or shortly after, as that year Isfahan was sacked by the Afghans. She supposes that at that time the book was looted by an Afghan soldier and was possibly exchanged with an Iranian Jew.

The Picture Bible is illustrated with saturated colors and exquisite detail. In order to make its lessons relevant to readers, the creators of this Bible set Old Testament stories in contemporaneous environments. For example, depictions of architecture evoke the castles and houses of thirteenth-century French towns and battle scenes are illustrated with thirteenth-century armor, weapons, and battle insignia.

Page description: 

Divine Vengeance
Pharaoh learns that the Israelites are lost in the wilderness and vows vengeance upon them. Egyptian war chariots corner the Israelites at the Red Sea, and the people are certain of their doom. But Moses, at the Lord's command, raises his hand above the waters and miraculously parts the sea. The Israelites flee over dry land to the opposite shore, the Egyptians in bold pursuit. Now Pharaoh and his army pay the ultimate price for this conceit: with all of the Israelites safely ashore, Moses strikes the sea a final time, and the waters envelop the enemy. (Exodus 14:21–30)

A Joyful Celebration
Miriam, prophetess and sister of Aaron and Moses, plays a timbrel as other women dance and rejoice. Seated before a tent, Moses and the Israelites look on and give thanks to the Lord. Notice how Miriam's gaze is directed toward the drowning horse and rider above, perhaps a literal reference to her words of praise: "Sing to the Lord, for He has triumphed gloriously! The horse and his rider He has thrown into the sea!" (Exodus 15:1–21)

Bitter Waters
In the wilderness, the bitter waters of Marah dismay the people, and the flocks thirst, but the Lord hears Moses' plea and reveals to him a tree that will sweeten the waters. (Exodus 15:22–24)


Folio 9r (Latin)

Upper half: How, when the children of Israel crossed the depths of the sea with dry feet, and Pharaoh, his heart hardened, was pursuing them with his host, Moses, striking the sea as God had ordered, reduced into one place the sea water in which Pharaoh was overwhelmed and submerged with all his chariots and horses, absolutely none escaping. (Exodus 14)

Lower left: How the children of Israel, saved from such dangers, give thanks to God. (Exodus 15: 1–21)

Lower right: How Moses and the people of Israel, having entered the desert, came to a place where the water was bitter and, as the people could not drink it, they began murmuring against Moses. He, turning to God, devised a remedy on the spot. (Exodus 15: 23–26)

Folio 9r (Persian)

*Left margin: And when Moses had led his tribe three leagues out of the city, Pharaoh regretted having released them. He gathered the army and pursued them. When Moses reached the seashore and struck the sea with his staff, a path appeared. Moses with his people stepped into the sea and Pharaoh and his army [also] entered the water. And Moses struck the water again and the sea closed in and they [the Egyptians] drowned.

Lower left: The tribe of Moses emerged from the sea unscathed and embarked on praising his Excellence the God.

*The inscription begins in the Left Margin and continues beneath the Lower Left quadrant.

Lower right margin: The tribe of Moses reached a place in the desert where there was a well of water [so] exceedingly bitter and salty that they could not drink and they informed Moses wondering what shall happen to them.

Folio 9r (Judeo-Persian)

Left margin, furthest left: Having been authorized, the Children of Israel [exit] from Egypt. Pharaoh, repenting [of having granted permission], sends the army after them.

Lower left, beneath Latin: Here it is that the Children of Israel, having come out of the sea, Moses [and] Miriam busied themselves with singing.

Lower right margin, bottom corner: This is the scene when the Children of Israel arrived at the spring of bitter water, which was Marah.


Content consultant: Richard Leson

Persian translated by Sussan Babaie

Judeo-Persian translated by Vera Basch Moreen

Latin translation by Eran Lupu

After the commentary volume accompanying the Fine Art Facsimile edition by Faksimile Verlag Luzern /