MS M.917, pp. 236–237

Adoration of the Magi

Hours of Catherine of Cleves, in Latin
Illuminated by the Master of Catherine of Cleves

Utrecht, The Netherlands
ca. 1440
Tempera on vellum
7 1/2 x 5 1/8 in. (192 x 130 mm)

Purchased on the Belle da Costa Greene Fund and with the assistance of the Fellows, 1963

MS M.917, pp. 236–237
Item description: 

Created in Utrecht, The Netherlands, around 1440, the manuscript was taken apart sometime before 1856. Its leaves were shuffled and then rebound into two volumes to make each look more or less complete. The first part was acquired by the duke of Arenberg, whose descendants owned it until 1957, when it was bought by New York dealer H. P. Kraus, who sold it to Alistair Bradley Martin. This volume had been known by scholars as the "Hours of Catherine of Cleves."

Meanwhile, the second part had been acquired by the Rothschild family, who kept their manuscripts secret. In 1963 their volume was sold to the Morgan as yet another "Hours of Catherine of Cleves." Studying the newly acquired book (it became MS M.917) along with the Martin volume, Morgan curator John Plummer determined that they were actually two halves of one and the same codex. In 1964 the Morgan mounted an exhibition of both volumes, displaying all the miniatures via color transparencies. When a facsimile of the manuscript was published by George Braziller in 1966, the exhibition was repeated. Finally, in 1970, the Morgan was able to buy the Martin volume (it became MS M.945), and thus came to own both parts of this greatest of all Dutch manuscripts.

Both volumes have been disbound in preparation for rebinding the leaves in proper order.

Page description: 

The Three Magi rarely appear in Suffrages. Their prominent position in Catherine's book probably derived from the proximity of Cologne, whose cathedral proudly preserved their relics in a glorious shrine. The eldest magus kneels before baby Jesus offering gold, toward which the child lunges. The second king points to the star that guided them. Waiting his turn is the third magus, who as the youngest is the most fashionably dressed. The deep landscape alludes to their long journey. In the border is Catherine's rosary composed of luxurious coral beads, gold ornaments, and pearls. The letters embroidered on the little purse have been interpreted as CD for Catherina Duxissa (Catherine the Duchess).

Hours: 

Suffrages

Suffrages are short prayers to individual saints. As protectors of medieval people, saints were their doctor in plague, their midwife at childbirth, their guardian when traveling, and their nurse during toothache. If the Virgin was the figure to whom one addressed the all-important petition for eternal salvation, it was from saints that one sought more basic or temporal kinds of help. While the Virgin became, as the Mother of God, almost a goddess herself, saints retained more of their humanity and thus their approachability.

Credits: 

Image courtesy of Faksimile Verlag Luzern