Ten Thousand Martyrs and St. Acacius
Hours of Catherine of Cleves, in Latin
Illuminated by the Master of Catherine of Cleves
Purchased on the Belle da Costa Greene Fund and with the assistance of the Fellows, 1963
Created in Utrecht, The Netherlands, around 1440, the manuscript was taken apart sometime before 1856. Its leaves were shuffled and then rebound into two volumes to make each look more or less complete. The first part was acquired by the duke of Arenberg, whose descendants owned it until 1957, when it was bought by New York dealer H. P. Kraus, who sold it to Alistair Bradley Martin. This volume had been known by scholars as the "Hours of Catherine of Cleves."
Meanwhile, the second part had been acquired by the Rothschild family, who kept their manuscripts secret. In 1963 their volume was sold to the Morgan as yet another "Hours of Catherine of Cleves." Studying the newly acquired book (it became MS M.917) along with the Martin volume, Morgan curator John Plummer determined that they were actually two halves of one and the same codex. In 1964 the Morgan mounted an exhibition of both volumes, displaying all the miniatures via color transparencies. When a facsimile of the manuscript was published by George Braziller in 1966, the exhibition was repeated. Finally, in 1970, the Morgan was able to buy the Martin volume (it became MS M.945), and thus came to own both parts of this greatest of all Dutch manuscripts.
Both volumes have been disbound in preparation for rebinding the leaves in proper order.
In this grisly miniature ten men represent ten thousand soldiers martyred at Mt. Ararat for their mass conversion to the Christian faith before a battle. They are in a variety of pained poses, impaled on the spreading branches of an acacia tree and wearing only loincloths and crowns of thorns on their heads. Legend holds that they were crucified, and this depiction of impalement may stem from a misreading of, or a play on, the name of their leader, Acacius. The saint himself stands at the right of the miniature incongruously wearing bishop's vestments despite his occupation of soldier (probably due to confusion with a different St. Acacius who was a bishop). A long scroll curling around the border bears the Apostles' Creed; it winds through portraits of the twelve apostles, who, in a trompe-l'oeil effect, peek from holes in the vellum cut into the shapes of white flowers. The Creed starts toward the upper right with Petrus (Peter) who is credited with writing the First Article, "Credo i[n] deu[m] p[at]rem o[mn]ipote[n]te[m] c[re]atore[m] celi et t[er]se" (I believe in Got the Father, Creator Almighty, creator of heaven and earth).
Suffrages are short prayers to individual saints. As protectors of medieval people, saints were their doctor in plague, their midwife at childbirth, their guardian when traveling, and their nurse during toothache. If the Virgin was the figure to whom one addressed the all-important petition for eternal salvation, it was from saints that one sought more basic or temporal kinds of help. While the Virgin became, as the Mother of God, almost a goddess herself, saints retained more of their humanity and thus their approachability.
Image courtesy of Faksimile Verlag Luzern