Old Testament Miniatures with Latin, Persian, and Judeo-Persian inscriptions
France, Paris, 1240s
Scholars believe that the Picture Bible was commissioned by Louis IX of France, the Capetian monarch who built the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris to house the crown of thorns before leaving for the first of his two crusades in 1248. The Bible later passed to the cardinal of Cracow, who then offered it as a diplomatic gift to the great Persian Muslim shah 'Abbas in the early seventeenth century. The manuscript eventually fell into the hands of Jewish owners, probably during the eighteenth century. These various owners left Latin, Persian, and Judeo-Persian inscriptions around the images. With these inscriptions, the keepers of the manuscript used their languages to assert their ownership of the book, appropriating its narrative contents and assimilating it into their own cultures.
The Latin captions are the earliest. They can be labeled as "early fourteenth-century," and were possibly made by a scribe trained in Bologna.
The Persian captions come next. They were added in 1608 or shortly after, when the manuscript was presented to Shah Abbas in Isfahan.
The Judeo-Persians are last, and according to the translator, they were probably made in 1722 or shortly after, as that year Isfahan was sacked by the Afghans. She supposes that at that time the book was looted by an Afghan soldier and was possibly exchanged with an Iranian Jew.
The Picture Bible is illustrated with saturated colors and exquisite detail. In order to make its lessons relevant to readers, the creators of this Bible set Old Testament stories in contemporaneous environments. For example, depictions of architecture evoke the castles and houses of thirteenth-century French towns and battle scenes are illustrated with thirteenth-century armor, weapons, and battle insignia.
MS M.638 (fol. 30r)
David returns victorious to Saul, bearing twice the required dowry. The modest painter has replaced the foreskins in the biblical text with the victims' heads. Saul, disappointed that David survived the battle, feigns appreciation. (1 Kings 18:27)
David and Michal Wedded
David and Michal are joined by the king in the presence of witnesses. Michal, still holding her lapdog, gives David a coy glance. The stern gaze Saul levels at his new son-in-law, however, foreshadows the conflict that is about to erupt. (1 Kings 18:27)
Saul Orders David's Assassination
David has become famous for his unsurpassed military Skill and wisdom. Saul is certain that the Lord favors David and is overcome by fear of the young commander. The king summons his son Jonathan and his servants and orders that David be slain. (1 Kings 18:28–19:1)
Jonathan warns David
Jonathan will not betray his dearest friend and reveals the king's evil plot to David. (1 Kings 19:1–2)
Image courtesy of Faksimile Verlag Luzern, www.faksimile.ch.
Content consultant: Richard Leson