The Eucharist Adored by Prophets Aaron and Isaiah and SS. Paul and Luke
Hours of Catherine of Cleves, in Latin
Illuminated by the Master of Catherine of Cleves
Purchased on the Belle da Costa Greene Fund and with the assistance of the Fellows, 1963
Created in Utrecht, The Netherlands, around 1440, the manuscript was taken apart sometime before 1856. Its leaves were shuffled and then rebound into two volumes to make each look more or less complete. The first part was acquired by the duke of Arenberg, whose descendants owned it until 1957, when it was bought by New York dealer H. P. Kraus, who sold it to Alistair Bradley Martin. This volume had been known by scholars as the "Hours of Catherine of Cleves."
Meanwhile, the second part had been acquired by the Rothschild family, who kept their manuscripts secret. In 1963 their volume was sold to the Morgan as yet another "Hours of Catherine of Cleves." Studying the newly acquired book (it became MS M.917) along with the Martin volume, Morgan curator John Plummer determined that they were actually two halves of one and the same codex. In 1964 the Morgan mounted an exhibition of both volumes, displaying all the miniatures via color transparencies. When a facsimile of the manuscript was published by George Braziller in 1966, the exhibition was repeated. Finally, in 1970, the Morgan was able to buy the Martin volume (it became MS M.945), and thus came to own both parts of this greatest of all Dutch manuscripts.
Both volumes have been disbound in preparation for rebinding the leaves in proper order.
The miniatures marking the Thursday Hours of the Blessed Sacrament contain some unusually complex iconography. Text tags helped Catherine (as they help us today) identify the scenes. Here the Eucharistic wafer, mounted in a monstrance, is being worshipped by four men. The prophets Aaron and Isaiah are on the left; their scroll, quoting Exodus (12:48), tells us that no uncircumcised person shall eat of the Passover. On the right are saints Paul and Luke; their scroll, quoting the First Epistle to the Corinthians (11:28), demands that a man be worthy before partaking of the Eucharist.
Hours and Masses for the Seven Days of the Week
The most unusual texts in Catherine's manuscript are the series of Hours and Masses for every day of the week. Medieval Christian tradition associated certain figures or themes with different days. Thus Sunday, the day of the Resurrection, was the Lord's Day; Thursday was connected with the Eucharist since that sacrament was instituted on Holy Thursday; and Monday was the day of the dead, since their torments were suspended on Sunday but recommenced the following day. In Catherine's prayer book, the themes for the Hours and Masses of the seven days of the week are:
|Tuesday||the Holy Spirit|
|Thursday||the Blessed Sacrament|
|Friday||the Compassion of God|
Image courtesy of Faksimile Verlag Luzern