Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple
Joseph Designated as the Husband of the Virgin
Hours of Catherine of Cleves, in Latin
Illuminated by the Master of Catherine of Cleves
Purchased on the Belle da Costa Greene Fund and with the assistance of the Fellows, 1963
Created in Utrecht, The Netherlands, around 1440, the manuscript was taken apart sometime before 1856. Its leaves were shuffled and then rebound into two volumes to make each look more or less complete. The first part was acquired by the duke of Arenberg, whose descendants owned it until 1957, when it was bought by New York dealer H. P. Kraus, who sold it to Alistair Bradley Martin. This volume had been known by scholars as the "Hours of Catherine of Cleves."
Meanwhile, the second part had been acquired by the Rothschild family, who kept their manuscripts secret. In 1963 their volume was sold to the Morgan as yet another "Hours of Catherine of Cleves." Studying the newly acquired book (it became MS M.917) along with the Martin volume, Morgan curator John Plummer determined that they were actually two halves of one and the same codex. In 1964 the Morgan mounted an exhibition of both volumes, displaying all the miniatures via color transparencies. When a facsimile of the manuscript was published by George Braziller in 1966, the exhibition was repeated. Finally, in 1970, the Morgan was able to buy the Martin volume (it became MS M.945), and thus came to own both parts of this greatest of all Dutch manuscripts.
Both volumes have been disbound in preparation for rebinding the leaves in proper order.
The beginning of each of the eight Hours of the Virgin was originally marked, as here, with a juxtaposition of a full- and a half-page miniature. Such elaborate pictorial treatment of the individual Hours is one of the hallmarks of Catherine of Cleves's prayer book. On the left, the Virgin Mary ascends the steps of the temple, where she will join two maidens engaged in weaving and spinning. On the right, the elderly Joseph is designated as Mary's husband. The Virgin's suitors—with the exception of Joseph, above whose head floats the Dove of the Holy Spirit—are depicted with withered rods. A reluctant contestant, Joseph had tried to withdraw but was prevented by his fellow suitors.
Hours of the Virgin
The heart of every Book of Hours is the series of prayers called the Hours of the Virgin. Each Hour is composed of psalms plus hymns, biblical readings, and short phrases (antiphons, versicles, and responses). Ideally, these eight Hours were prayed throughout the course of the day:
|Matins and Lauds||at night or upon rising|
|Prime (first Hour)||at 6:00 a.m.|
|Terce (third Hour)||at 9:00 a.m.|
|Sext (sixth Hour)||at noon|
|Nones (ninth Hour)||at 3:00 p.m.|
|Vespers (evensong)||in the early evening|
The Hours of the Virgin date back to at least the ninth century. By the late twelfth century, the Hours appeared in Psalters, prayer books popular with laypeople. With a rising economy and the growth of the merchant class, the thirteenth century saw an increase in lay literacy. By the middle of the century, the Hours of the Virgin "spun off" from the Psalter and formed the core of the laypeople's prayer book, the Book of Hours.
The Virgin Mary is, of course, not mentioned in the numerous psalms of the Old Testament that comprise much of the Hours. Framing the psalms, however, are prayers that offer a mystical interpretation of the psalms and reveal the role played by the Virgin in mankind's salvation.
Image courtesy of Faksimile Verlag Luzern