Boaz Must Send Ruth Away; A Settlement
Old Testament miniatures with Latin, Persian, and Judeo-Persian inscriptions
390 x 300 mm
Purchased by J. P. Morgan, Jr., 1916
MS M.638 (fol. 18v)
The Crusader Bible, also known as the Morgan Picture Bible, the Maciejowski Bible, and the Shah ‘Abbas Bible, is not only one of greatest medieval manuscripts in the Morgan, it also ranks as one of the incomparable achievements of French Gothic illumination.
The miniatures represent one of the greatest visualizations of Old Testament events ever made. Some of the stories and their heroes are well known, but there are also accounts of other Israelites who fought for the Promised Land—stories that resonate to this day. There are incredibly violent battle scenes where the implements of war are so accurately depicted they could be replicated. And there are scenes not only of murder, everyday life, and love, but also of hate, envy, adultery, and rape—all set in the scenery and customs of thirteenth-century France.
Boaz Must Send Ruth Away
Boaz cannot marry Ruth in good faith while another kinsman, a closer relation of her mother-in-law's, has legal rights to Naomi's property. In the meantime, Boaz gives Ruth six measures of barley, which she brings home to her mother-in-law. Naomi advises Ruth to be patient and await the outcome. (Ruth 3:14–18)
Boaz speaks with his kinsman and six elders concerning the matter of Naomi's property and Ruth. If the kinsman purchases the property, he must take Ruth to wife. Realizing that such a union would disinherit the rest of his family, the kinsman yields his privilege to Boaz. Following tradition, the kinsman removes his shoe before the assembly, a signal that he has officially relinquished his right. Boaz and the elders, all richly appareled, wear conical Jewish caps. (Ruth 4:3–8)
Folio 18v (Latin)
Upper half: How, when Boaz, upon finding Ruth during the night, was greatly stupefied and had told her that there was another relative, closer than him, who could, according to the law of priority, vindicate her, and that that person should first be asked if he wanted her, he sent her back in the morning laden with barley. She then related in order the whole affair to her mother-in-law. (Ruth 3: 8–18)
Lower half: How Boaz summoned the relative whom he had mentioned, and, having called on the elders of the people, asked him if he wished to have Ruth for himself, as she had been the wife of his relative. Now, he replied that he did not and that he would yield his right to Boaz. As a token of this, he took his shoes off his feet, for such was the testimony of cession among the people of Israel. (Ruth 4: 1–8)
Folio 18v (Persian)
Persian foliation: 26
Upper left margin: And Bahaz [Boaz] told Ruth, "You have a kinsman closer than me; if he does not take you, I shall take you." After that, he gave her a few clusters of wheat and sent her off.
Lower left margin: And Boaz set up a council and gathered the town elders and summoned the closer kinsman and said, "If you want Ruth’s property, take Ruth to wife." The kinsman said, "I do not want her; take her." And it was customary among this tribe to remove shoes from [their] feet if they did not want someone.
Folio 18v (Judeo-Persian)
Upper left margin, corner: Here it is that Boaz gives some wheat to Ruth; she goes before Naomi, as it is written [in the Book of] Ruth.
Left margin, middle: This also belongs to [the Book of] Ruth, as it is written in [the Book of Ruth].
Lower half, above Latin: Here Boaz [son of] Kish seeks out Naomi’s people regarding marrying Ruth. They answered [in the affirmative and] Boaz married [her].
Content consultant: Richard Leson
Persian translated by Sussan Babaie
Judeo-Persian translated by Vera Basch Moreen
Latin translation by Eran Lupu
After the commentary volume accompanying the Fine Art Facsimile edition by Faksimile Verlag Luzern / www.faksimile.ch