The Philistines Outfoxed; Samson's Surrender; One against a Thousand
Old Testament miniatures with Latin, Persian, and Judeo-Persian inscriptions
390 x 300 mm
Purchased by J. P. Morgan, Jr., 1916
MS M.638 (fol. 14v)
The Crusader Bible, also known as the Morgan Picture Bible, the Maciejowski Bible, and the Shah ‘Abbas Bible, is not only one of greatest medieval manuscripts in the Morgan, it also ranks as one of the incomparable achievements of French Gothic illumination.
The miniatures represent one of the greatest visualizations of Old Testament events ever made. Some of the stories and their heroes are well known, but there are also accounts of other Israelites who fought for the Promised Land—stories that resonate to this day. There are incredibly violent battle scenes where the implements of war are so accurately depicted they could be replicated. And there are scenes not only of murder, everyday life, and love, but also of hate, envy, adultery, and rape—all set in the scenery and customs of thirteenth-century France.
The Philistines Outfoxed
When Samson returns to his Philistine wife, he finds that her father has treacherously given her to another. Enraged, Samson devises a scheme to punish the Philistines. He catches three hundred foxes, ties their tails together, and fastens torches between them. The foxes are released into the Philistine fields, burning the corn, vineyards, and olive groves. (Judges 15:1–5)
The men of Judah want no quarrel with their angry Philistine masters, who have come in search of the culprit responsible for the crop fires. Samson, wishing no further harm upon his people, allows himself to be bound for delivery to the Philistines. (Judges 15:10–13)
One against a Thousand
Samson's opponents will not have satisfaction. No sooner does the vengeful Philistine mob approach him than the spirit of the Lord comes upon Samson. He reaches for anything that might serve as a weapon and finds the jawbone of an ass. With this unlikely weapon, he slays a thousand of his enemies. (Judges 15:14–16)
Folio 14v (Latin)
Upper half: How Samson, who was angered by the Philistines, from among whom he had a wife, caught three hundred foxes and tied them tail to tail with burning torches placed in between and let them to go only where, running in different directions through the enemy’s ripe crops, they were to burn all. (Judges 15: 1–5).
Lower left: How men of the tribe of Judah, fearing that the Philistines, who were then ruling over them, would take vengeance on them for Samson’s deed, sent three thousand men to arrest him and hand him over, tied up, to the Philistines who fastened him with two new ropes. (Judges 15: 9–13)
Lower right: How when Samson was led by his own men to be handed over to their enemy, the bands by which he was bound were suddenly broken and he, rushing toward his enemies, killed a thousand men with a jawbone of an ass which he had found accidentally. (Judges 15: 14–16)
Folio 14v (Persian)
Persian foliation: 30
Upper left margin: Samson left at dawn and captured many foxes from every direction; it is said that three hundred foxes fell into his hands. In pairs, he tied their tails together and attached a bunch of hay to them and set them on fire. They ran in the midst of the wheat [fields] which belonged to the enemies of Samson and all [the fields] burned.
Lower left margin: Samson’s enemies, seeing their harvest had burned, told Samson’s brethren that, "We shall fight you; better that you deliver him to us." They came to Samson and said, "The enemies have demanded you from us." Samson said, "Tie me up and deliver me into their hands." They brought two new ropes and tied Samson’s hands tightly and surrendered him to the enemy.
Lower right, above and below Latin inscription: They surrendered bound Samson to them, and the army of the enemy was three thousand men and they set out to kill Samson. Samson strained and tore the ropes and he picked up the jawbone of an ass which lay on the ground and slew those three thousand men with a single jawbone of an ass and finished them off.
Folio 14v (Judeo-Persian)
Upper left margin, corner: Samson sets on fire the Philistine’s wheat harvest, by fastening tapers to the tail[s] of fox[es].
Lower left, above Latin: The Philistines seek Samson from his own people; Samson’s saying, "Bind me and hand me over."
Lower right, beneath Persian: The Philistines tie Samson’s hands tightly in order to carry him off and kill him. He strains, frees his hands, seizes the jaw bone of an ass and with one blow strikes them dead and departs.
Content consultant: Richard Leson
Persian translated by Sussan Babaie
Judeo-Persian translated by Vera Basch Moreen
Latin translation by Eran Lupu
After the commentary volume accompanying the Fine Art Facsimile edition by Faksimile Verlag Luzern / www.faksimile.ch